Thursday, May 21, 2020

Native American Influence on the Founding of the US

In telling the history of the rise of the United States and modern democracy, high school history texts typically emphasize the influence of ancient Rome on the founding fathers ideas about what form the new nation would take. Even college and graduate-level political science programs bias towards this, but there is substantial scholarship on the influence the founding fathers derived from Native American governing systems and philosophies. A survey of the documentation demonstrating those influences based on the work of Robert W. Venables and others is telling for what the founders absorbed from Indians and what they intentionally rejected in their crafting of the Articles of Confederation and later the Constitution. Pre-Constitutional Era In the late 1400s when Christian Europeans began to encounter the indigenous inhabitants of the New World, they were forced to come to terms with a new race of people entirely unfamiliar to them. While by the 1600s the natives had captured the Europeans imaginations and knowledge of the Indians was widespread in Europe, their attitudes toward them would be based on comparisons to themselves. These ethnocentric understandings would result in narratives about Indians which would embody the concept of either the noble savage or the brutal savage, but savage regardless of connotation. Examples of these images can be seen throughout European and pre-revolutionary American culture in the works of literature by the likes of Shakespeare (particularly The Tempest), Michel de Montaigne, John Locke, Rousseau, and many others. Benjamin Franklins Views on Native Americans During the years of the Continental Congress and the drafting of the Articles of Confederation, the Founding Father who was by far the most influenced by Native Americans and had bridged the gap between European conceptions (and misconceptions) and real life in the colonies was Benjamin Franklin. Born in 1706 and a newspaper journalist by trade, Franklin wrote on his many years of observations and interactions with natives (most often the Iroquois but also the Delawares and Susquehannas) in a classic essay of literature and history called Remarks Concerning the Savages of North America. In part, the essay is a less than flattering account of Iroquois impressions of the colonists way of life and education system, but more than that the essay is a commentary on the conventions of Iroquois life. Franklin seemed impressed by the Iroquois political system and noted: for all their government is by the Council or advice of the sages; there is no force, there are no prisons, no officers to c ompel obedience, or inflict punishment. Hence they generally study oratory; the best speaker having the most influence in his eloquent description of government by consensus. He also elaborated on Indians sense of courtesy in Council meetings and compared them to the raucous nature of the British House of Commons. In other essays, Benjamin Franklin would elaborate on the superiority of Indian foods, especially corn which he found to be one of the most agreeable and wholesome grains of the world. He would even argue the need for American forces to adopt Indian modes of warfare, which the British had successfully done during the French and Indian war. Influences on the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution In conceiving the ideal form of government, the colonists drew upon European thinkers like Jean Jacques Rousseau, Montesquieu, and John Locke. Locke, in particular, wrote about Indians state of perfect freedom and argued theoretically that power should not derive from a monarch but from the people. But it was the colonists direct observations of the political practices of the Iroquois Confederacy which convinced them how power vested in the people actually produced a functional democracy. According to Venables, the concept of the pursuit of life and liberty are directly attributable to Native influences. However, where Europeans diverged from Indian political theory was in their conceptions of property; the Indian philosophy of communal landholding was diametrically opposed to the European idea of individual private property, and it was the protection of private property that would be the thrust of the Constitution (until the creation of the Bill of Rights, which would return the foc us to the protection of liberty). Overall, however, as Venables argues, the Articles of Confederation would more closely reflect American Indian political theory than the Constitution, ultimately to the detriment of the Indian nations. The Constitution would create a central government in which power would be concentrated, versus the loose confederation of the cooperative but independent Iroquois nations, which much more closely resembled the union created by the Articles. Such concentration of power would enable imperialist expansion of the United States along the lines of the Roman Empire, which the Founding Fathers embraced more than the liberties of the savages, who they saw as inevitably meeting the same fate as their own tribal ancestors in Europe. Ironically, the Constitution would follow the very pattern of British centralization that the colonists rebelled against, despite the lessons they learned from the Iroquois.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Filipino Christian Living - 2253 Words

TOPIC 16: LEADERSHIP IN A DEMOCRATIC CHRISTIAN PERSPECTIVE It discussed about to understand a democratic leadership. perpetualite: a man for others states that â€Å"In a democratic community each person is assumed to have equal significance without assuming, precisely, that all members have the same skills and gift. It does mean, however, that each person has unique talent that contribute to the group’s power base. In a Christian point of view, leadership in a democratic style speaks of â€Å"Democratic community building that requires a knowledgeable leader who recommends that action be taken by the entire group; no authority figure; the leader listens and respects the other group members, encourages independence and offers guidance in the name†¦show more content†¦Man as being in the world. Let us borrow the philosophical understanding and explanation of man in the world form the book entitled, â€Å"the human person: not real, but existing†, by Eddie R. B acor, states that â€Å"the term world is derived from the Anglo-Saxon words which means:weor and old. The term â€Å"weor† means â€Å"man† and the term â€Å"old† is interpreted as â€Å"age†. Literally, the world is interpreted as â€Å" the age of man.†(Babor, 2007). QUESTIONS: A. THE TERM WEOR MEANS MAN AND THE TERM OLD IS INTERPRETED AS? - Age B. WHO IS THE PHILOSOPHER TREATS THE WORLD AND FOR THE MAINTENANCE OF ITS NATURE? -Martin Heidegger Topic 21: Leadership at home Home is both the home or shelter and household or family.†It plays a very important role in the life of any society, and it is the basic and most fundamental unit in any society.† Parents need to realize that every world and deed of a parent is a fiber woven into the character of the child. Children on their part have to respect their parents authority over them and pity the home where everyone is the head. Children have an obligation to care for their parents especially in their old age. Christian Value. 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Bottled Water and Its Industry Free Essays

Bottled Water and Its Industry Bottled water is a big business. Since the 1970s the market for bottled water has boomed around the world. Even soft-drink companies like Pepsi and Coca-Cola have dipped their hands into this successful product. We will write a custom essay sample on Bottled Water and Its Industry or any similar topic only for you Order Now According to Beverage Marketing Corp, New York City, Americans now consume more bottled water than milk, coffee, beer, or any other drink (Fishman) Consumers’ thirst for the beverage is fueled by many factors, one of the largest reasons being an increased interest in a healthy lifestyle. As a result, the bottled water market increased by an average of 9% annually between 1999 and 2004 (Spinner, 2006) The global rate of consumption more than quadrupled between 1990 and 2005 (Li, 2007) People in the United States buy more than half a billion bottles of water a week; that is enough to circle the earth more than 5 times (Leonard). How can we explain this trend and what are the consequences for producers, consumers, and the environment? Bottled water consumption reflects a certain way of life. In many cases, bottled water is an alternative to tap water. Consumers think it tastes better than tap water and they perceive it as being safer and of better quality. Bottled water is perceived as pure and harmless, although it is not necessarily the case. Consumers care for their health and their well-being and bottled water happens to be a quick, easy, and healthy alternative to other bottled beverages. The history of bottled water comes back to how the economy works. If companies want to keep growing they have to keep selling more and more stuff. In the 1970s giant soft drink companies got worried when they saw their growth projections starting to level off (Leonard). This was most likely because one person can only drink so much soda and sooner or later people were going to realized that soda is not healthy and they will convert back to drinking tap water. So at the end of the 1970s companies found their next big thing in a French product, Perrier. This was water sold in glass bottles and became the newest fad. It wasn’t until 1989 when they started manufacturing bottled water in plastic containers (Tapped, 2009). But how do you get people to keep spending two-thousand times more on a product that they can get out of their kitchen sink? Companies needed to find an effective way to keep people interested in their product, so they start using manufactured demand, or advertising. They started scaring people away from drinking tap water, telling them it was no good. Susan Wellington, president of the Quaker Oats Company’s United States beverage division said, â€Å"When we’re done, tap water will be relegated to showers and washing dishes† (Gleick, 2010) Their next technique was to hide the reality of bottled water behind pure fantasy. They market it as being convenient and personal, which caters to our desires as a human. Producers know that we love having something that is all ours and in close reach whenever we want it. They seduced us with images of mountains, streams, and pristine nature, but in reality one-third of bottled water in the United States comes from the tap. Pepsi and Coca-Cola are just two of many brands that are merely tap water. There is much debate on whether bottled water is better or worse than tap water. Obviously there are places around the world, and even the United States that do not have access to clean drinking water, so yes, in these places bottled water is the better choice. But in the places where most bottled water is purchased, tap water is equally comparable, if not better, than bottled water. In 2006 Fiji built an ad campaign around not drinking city tap water. They chose the city of Cleveland, Ohio and printed full page ads in magazines that read â€Å"The label says Fiji because it’s not bottled in Cleveland†(Gleick, 2010) Obviously the city of Cleveland was not pleased and conducted a blind test comparing Fiji water to their city’s tap water. The test showed that a glass of Fiji water is lower quality and loses the taste test against Cleveland’s tap water. Five percent of the bottled water purchased in Cleveland fell within the required fluoride range recommended by the state, compared with 100% of the tap water samples (Duncan, 2010) Also, a bottle of Fiji costs thousands of times more than the same about of tap water. Tap water being chosen blindly over bottled water seems to be the common trend (Wilk, 2006) Bottled water is actually less regulated than tap water. City municipals must perform multiple tests a day on the city’s water source, whereas bottled water industries are not bound under these same laws. Clearly taste is not the central motivation behind the continuing increase in the bottled water trade (Li, 2007) In March 1999, the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) released a report called â€Å"Bottled Water, Pure Drink or Pure Hype? † NRDC’s report points out that as much as 40% of all bottled water comes from a city water system, just like tap water. The report also focuses on the fact that 60% to 70% of all bottled water sold in the United States is exempt from the FDA’s bottled water standards, because the federal standards do not apply to water bottled and sold within the same state. Unless the water is transported across state lines, there are no federal regulations that govern its quality. According to the NRDC, â€Å"Bottled water companies have used this loophole to avoid complying with basic health standards, such as those that apply to municipally treated tap water. † Also, all carbonated or sparkling waters are completely exempt from FDA guidelines that set specific contamination limits. According to the NRDC study, â€Å"Even when bottled waters are covered by the FDA’s specific bottled water standards, those rules are weaker in many ways than EPA [Environmental Protection Agency] rules that apply to big-city tap water. For instance, if we compare EPA regulations for tap water to the FDA’s bottled water rules (these examples are quotes from the NRDC report): †¢City tap water can have no confirmed E. coli or fecal coliform bacteria. FDA bottled water rules include no such prohibition (a certain amount of any type of coliform bact eria is allowed in bottled water). †¢City tap water, from surface water, must be filtered and disinfected. In contrast, there are no federal filtration or disinfection requirements for bottled water. Most cities using surface water have had to test for Cryptosporidium or Giardia, two common water pathogens that can cause diarrhea and other intestinal problems, yet bottled water companies do not have to do this. †¢City tap water must meet standards for certain important toxic or cancer-causing chemicals, such as phthalate (a chemical that can leach from plastic, including plastic bottles); some in the industry persuaded the FDA to exempt bottled water from the regulations regarding these chemicals. City water systems must issue annual â€Å"right to know† reports, telling consumers what is in their water. Bottlers successfully killed a â€Å"right to know† requirement for bottled water †¢The Natural Resources Defense Council report concluded: â€Å"There fore, while much tap water is indeed risky, having compared available data, we conclude that there is no assurance that bottled water is any safer than tap water. † Often, enforcement and monitoring of water quality is uneven and irregular for both tap water and bottled water. While tap water contamination incidents must be reported promptly to the public, the same is not true for bottled water. While contamination of bottled water does occur, many instances have never received public notice until recently (Gleick, 2010). Aside from the excessive spending of consumers on bottled water, there are also many health effects inadvertently caused by the bottled water industry, one of these problems being tooth decay. Since the 1950s, the United States has been involved in a public health program called ‘community water fluoridation’(1800 Dentist). Many communities throughout the nation added fluoride to their water supply, and the result was a significant decrease in the number of childhood cavities (Xiang, 2010) Bottling companies use processes such as reverse osmosis or distillation to remove impurities from the water, which also removes the fluoride (Lalumandier,2009). Fluoride, or lack thereof, in your water may not seem like much of a reason to worry about whether or not you should drink tap water versus bottled water, but this is not the only risk for consumers. According to a 1999 NRDC study in which approximately 22% of brands were tested, at least one sample of bottled drinking water contained chemical contaminants at levels above state health limits. Some of the contaminants found in the study could pose health risks, such as cancer, if consumed over a long period of time (NRDC) Polyethylene terephthalate (PET, or PETE) is a chemical found in the plastic used to make water bottles. A 2009 study by reasearchers form Goethe University in Germany suggest that PET bottles may contain hormone-disrupting chemicals that are detrimental to human health. Some compounds in PET may seep out from these bottles and can possibly cause cancer. This typically occurs when the water is exposed to either cold or hot temperatures (Ferrier, 2001) Another chemical found in the plastic used to make water bottles is bisphenol-a (BPA). This has multiple health effects, including cancer and reproduction problems in women of child bearing age, as well as in babies (Ferrier, 2001, and Tapped). Producers and consumers are not the only components affected by the bottled water industry. Probably the most effected element is our environment. From diminishing fresh water sources, to wildlife, to pollution, our environment is suffering immensely from production and disposal of bottled water. In a recent full page ad, Nestle said, â€Å"Bottled water is the most environmentally responsible consumer product in the world. † (Nestle Waters). How can this be true when these industries are trashing the environment all along the products life cycle. This is not environmentally responsible. The problems start with extraction and production where oil is used to make water bottles. PET is derived from crude oil. One kilogram of PET requires two kilograms of oil and produces three kilograms of CO2. Making bottles to meet consumer demands for bottled water requires more than 1. 5 million barrels of oil a year (Arnold, 2006 and Ferrier, 2001). That is enough oil to fuel 100,000 cars each year. With all that energy used to make the bottle, even more energy is used to ship it around the planet and once it reaches us we drink it in about two minutes. That brings us to the problem at the other end of the life cycle. What happens to all the bottles when we are done with them? Eighty percent of empty bottles end up in landfills where they will sit for thousands of years before decomposing. Many end up in incinerators where they are burned releasing toxic pollution into the atmosphere. The rest is recycled. But what happens to the recycled bottles? In a perfect world each bottle would be recycled and remade into another water bottle. Instead the plastic goes through a downcycling process, which turns the material into lower grade plastics which is used to produce tons of other products, wasting much of the scrap and discarding it in another country’s backyard and/or into the ocean (Tapped, 2009). There is a garbage patch twice the size of Texas in the North Pacific Ocean. The garbage patch occupies a relatively stationary region of the North Pacific. The rotational pattern of the current draws in waste material from across the North Pacific, including costal waters off North America and Japan. As material is captured in the currents it remains trapped inside this region of ocean. One hundred million marine mammals and turtles in the North Pacific are killed every year by plastic in the ocean. 70-100% of North Pacific sea birds are affected by eating plastic. Plastic is killing the ocean and it is poisoning the fish we eat. Because the fish we eat have likely ingested contaminated plastic, it is virtually impossible for nature to produce organic fish in the ocean. Pepsi’s vice chairman publicly said, â€Å"The biggest enemy is tap water. † They want us to think it is dirty and that bottled water is the best alternative. In many places public water is polluted. Thanks to polluting industries, one of the major contributors being the bottled water industry. Drinking bottled water has become a trivial habit in many people’s everyday lives. Bad tap water taste or quality, fitness goals, and other numerous reasons lead consumer to buy bottled water. Bottled water may even be necessary, for instance in case of temporary tap water contamination. This flourishing market is profitable for many companies and provides a great number of jobs to people around the world. Bottled water quality is generally good, although it can suffer from the same contamination hazards as tap water and also contains hazardous compounds in the bottle itself. Some solutions to make sure bottled water quality is as good as it claims could include things like, companies releasing their quality tests on a day-to-day basis and make them available to the community. It should also be required by all companies to include information about where the water came from, or how it was filtered, on the label. The International Bottled Water Association (IBWA) is beginning to â€Å"go green†. Nestle, for instance, will use 30% lighter plastic bottles and 30% smaller labels, as well as eco-shaped bottles. Their bottles will be 100% recyclable, and when building production plants they will make sure the building is green-building certified. Another step they are taking is looking into hybrid vehicles for distribution of their product (Nestle Waters, 2011). This seems like Nestle is taking the right steps to improve production and use resources in a manner that will help improve, or at least maintain, our environment, but I cannot help but wonder if this is one of their marketing tools. Sure, they are producing in a more environmentally friendly way, but is this one of their ways of â€Å"tricking† us into buying their product and steering us away from their non-green competitors? When buying their product we are still contributing to this market. Bottled water is not all bad. It has many positive uses. Bottled water is an absolute critical lifesaver in many natural disasters. Bottled water has a substantial shelf life. This is especially valuable for emergency preparation, but also for many other purposes. Also, bottled water is a nearly ideal consumer product: it is healthy, non-addictive, hypoallergenic, caffeine-free, calorie free, and contains no artificial colors, flavors, trans fats, etc. Fager, 2009) Some things we could do to reduce the environmental impact of bottled water are to re-use bottles of water rather than recycling them to be re-manufactured, or buy a reusable, BPA free, water bottle. A more aggressive approach would be to lobby with city and state officials for more drinking fountains around your city, or towards the boycott of bottled water in your public schools and work places. These are just a few steps to start protecting our wallets, our health, and our planet. How to cite Bottled Water and Its Industry, Papers

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Sports Utility Vehicles Essay Example

Sports Utility Vehicles Essay The automobile industry in the US and elsewhere in the world has spent a significant amount of their marketing budgets to promote the sale of Sports Utility Vehicles. They promote the benefits of these vehicles as tools capable of conquering the toughest environment whilst ensuring the safety of its owners. Yet few have acknowledge the real cost of these vehicles. The purpose of this paper is to discuss that cost in further depth. Our intention, through research, is to analyze the adverse effect that these vehicles have in terms of the environment, health and safety. As a result, we will discover the real cost of SUV power and observe measures that can be taken to address these problems. Sports Utility Vehicles: The real cost of power. Sport Utility Vehicles have become very popular vehicles over recent years, and this popularity has increased since the 1980’s. They have become a â€Å"preeminent symbol of American popular culture† (David Goewey 113). They are powerful vehicles, which also cost a lot to run. The SUV, usually sold with four-wheeled drive, is a modern phenomenon. It is a hybrid vehicle, which has all the comforts of a luxury car linked with the four-wheel qualities of a light truck. Their reputed ability to be able to traverse natural terrains with safety and power has found favor with the consumers, and manufacturers of these vehicles have been quick to exploit these reasons to their own advantage. The Jeep promotional material is a typical representation of this ethos (see Jeep.com, opening page), with their SUVs being shown against a variety of natural backgrounds such as mountains, deserts, and rugged water environments. We will write a custom essay sample on Sports Utility Vehicles specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Sports Utility Vehicles specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Sports Utility Vehicles specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer In this report, we ask the question are these vehicles safe and environmentally friendly? The result of our research concludes that these vehicles extract a serious cost in terms of health and safety and upon the environment. The success of the automobile industry’s promotional campaigns has led to a steady increase in the sale of SUV’s over the past two decades. Despite the projection of them being rugged off-road vehicles, only around 10% ever fulfill that purpose (Keith Bradsher, sec 1:1). Another interesting fact is that, as David Goewey (118) reports, female consumers now account for 40% of SUV’s sales. Because of this popularity, these vehicles have attracted a considerable amount of research attention. Most of this has concentrated upon two aspects. The first is the safety aspect of the SUV in terms of their performance in accidents. The second aspect is their environmental cost, where many argue that fuel consumption and emission have a damaging effect. The ethos of many consumers when purchasing their vehicles is the safety element. In general terms consumers reach the decision to purchase an SUV upon the reasoning of self-interest, in other words how safe their automobile is for themselves and their family. Much of this perception results from the psychology of the drivers themselves. A report in the New Yorker (Malcolm Gladwell para 3) suggests that the SUV explosion has been brought about by a change in the way that drivers perceive danger, with the emphasis now being on the inevitability rather than the avoidability of accidents. The report quotes Stephen Popiel, a vice-president of a market research firm in the automobile industry, who says that most consumers’ thoughts are that, â€Å"if I were to take this vehicle and drive it into this brick wall, the more metal there is in front of me the better off Ill be.†(Gladwell, para 2) Few would consciously consider the safety element as it may affect other road users, including pedestrians, cyclists and other vehicle drivers. The evidence, as shown in numerous researches carried out on the subject, proves that this is not the case. In addition, it shows that SUV’s can present a serious safety hazard to other road users as well as to those who use the vehicles. As part of the research for Gladwell’s article (Gladwell para 2), he cites that a SUV (Chevrolet Trailblazer) was compared in tests against a Porsche Boxster in two tests. The first was an obstacle test, with cones representing a variety of other road users. In the SUV, traveling at thirty-miles an hour the reporter struggled to complete the tests, and knocked down a number of the obstructions as well as creating difficult conditions inside the vehicle with passengers being thrown around. In a real life scenario, it would have resulted in some injuries, if not fatalities. The instructor explained, â€Å"Thats what the extra weight that S.U.V.s have tends to do.  Ã‚   It pulls you in the wrong direction.† An identical driver in the Boxster, at a speed of fifty miles an hour, resulted in all the obstacles being avoided and a smooth drive. In a second test, the stopping distances of the two vehicles were compared. Both were tested for emergency stops from sixty miles an hour. The results were that it took the Trailblazer around 150 feet to come to a halt, against the Boxster’s 124. In real traffic terms, the difference represents around two car lengths. The results are supported by other research and support the validity of safety concerns. Further research has concentrated upon other aspects of the results of accidents and safety. A report by Lefler and Gabler (p.295-304), concentrated on the fatality rates with pedestrians and showed that these doubled in the case of an accident involving an SUV when compared with an ordinary passenger car. Other studies confirm these findings. Although the weight of the vehicle is a contributory factor in these findings, it was found that the major reasons for the fatality increase was due to the design difference between the two types of vehicles. Being lower to the ground and with a more curved front, the passenger car impacted upon the pedestrian at lower leg level, therefore causing less immediate damage to a persons mid regions. The first point of impact with a SUV would be at mid region level, resulting in a higher incidence of damage that could be fatal. Therefore, the SUV does pose an increased safety risk. A similar increase in the cost of human damage can be seen where the other party in the accident is in a vehicle. In Keith Bradsher’s (2004) book on the subject, he covers various research related to the subject of accidents involving two or more vehicles. The results show that there would be a significantly higher incidence of fatalities in a passenger car/SUV accident than if two passenger cars were involved. In fact, research has shown that in a two-passenger car accident there was almost half the number of fatalities than if two SUV’s were involved with a similar incident. There have also been a number of researches conducted into the inherent safety of the SUV vehicle itself. The most significant of these have been targeted at the rollover inclination of an SUV. As we identified recently in the test that was undertaken for the Commerce and Culture (Malcolm Gladwell para 2) article, the stability of these vehicles at relatively low speeds, when encountering driving obstacles was found to be questionable. The problem is that as these speeds increase, so does the instability levels, and in the event of a sharp response to a hazard, be that because of physical obstacles or weather conditions, it increases the likelihood of the vehicle rolling over. In addition to safety concerns, the other area of SUV proliferation of ownership that is causing considerable concern is their environmental impact. Due to the format of the US automobile legislation, SUVs are classed as light trucks. Therefore, they are not subjected to the same strict levels of fuel consumptions and emissions as the passenger car. Manufacturers of these vehicles have taken advantage of this more relaxed level of regulation. Sinantha Songseng (2004) research paper shows that average automobile fuel consumption in the US dropped to 23.8 miles per gallon in 1999, which set the lowest recorded level for nearly twenty years. This coincided with the significant increase in the sale of SUV’s and their much lower fuel economy at 20.3 mpg, with many recording well below this level. This means that considerably more natural gas and petroleum products are being used to sustain these vehicles. Records show that SUV’s and light vehicles is accounting for 40% of US oil consumption. (Songseng par 2) Furthermore, as the report continues, there is the additional environmental issue in respect of the SUV emission levels. Because of loopholes within the Clean Air Act, these vehicles are legally allowed to emit â€Å"30% more carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons and 75% more nitrogen oxides than passenger cars.† (Songseng par 3) This creates problems in two areas. Firstly, there is the effect that this has on the health of the population. These emissions in built up areas, reacting with the sun’s rays, can create smog conditions at ground levels. This can lead to breathing difficulties and damage human lungs. In the report Sinantha Songseng reported the results of a study carried out by Loma Linda University in 1991, which showed that various cancer incidences had risen by 37% increase, with lung cancers recording a 72% increase. The results were from a survey of women who had resided for ten years in cities that had recorded smog conditions on at least 42 days annually. Equally important is the issue of environmental damage, in particular the effect that carbon dioxide emissions, a by-product of motor fuel consumption, are having on global warming. Global warming is reported to be affecting weather conditions, including temperatures, rises in sea levels and increasing the risks of health problems and natural disasters. The following table shows the dramatic rise in the US carbon dioxide emissions in the eight years to 1998. Source of Data: Energy Information Administration, U.S. Department of Energy reported in Sinantha Sonseng (2000) nbsp; The rise in the number of SUV’s has contributed significantly to this rise in emissions, contributing an additional 717 million metric tones of carbon dioxide emissions. This is around three times as much as the emissions from a standard sized passenger car. (Songseng par 4) nbsp; All of the research that has been studied in the preparation of this report, together with the evidence seen, confirms that SUV’s are having a significant detrimental impact on both health and safety issues and the environment. This research has not taken into account the financial costs of these problems. However, it is apparent from the research that they need to be addressed. This is the responsibility of all of those involved with this phenomenon, including the governments, manufacturers, consumer and other organizations. The government has made some efforts in this respect. In his letter to the major manufacturers, Hardy Myers (2003), then Attorney General, admonished them for their advertising methods and warned that the â€Å"could be in violation of [the individual states] consumer protection laws.†(Myers letter 2003) He further warned that their advertising, similar to that seen in the Jeep (2006) promotions, failed to adequately address issues of safety. However, in terms of the environment, the government could take further steps to improve the situation by reclassifying these vehicles with more stringent emission controls. The Songseng (2000 par 2) research confirmed that there is the technology in place to enable compliance with such changes. Manufacturers have a major responsibility in these areas. They need to respond positively to the advice and warnings being issued by governments and other researches in terms of safety. This can be achieved by changing the tone of promotional campaigns, emphasizing the different driving attitudes and experienced attributable to an SUV, and seeking design changes that would make their vehicles safer. In addition, there is an urgent need to utilize the available technology to significantly reduce the environmental impact of SUV’s. Although some small steps have been taken in this direction, it is not enough and well below their capacity to do so. There is also a need to educate consumers. In addition to making the information more publicly available, the attitude of the consumer needs to be altered so that they approached their decision on purchasing a SUV based upon knowledge of the risk, awareness of the environmental impact and, based upon this, would use logical reasoning in that choice. In this situation, they would be fully aware of the damage these vehicles can do to other road users as well as the environment. There is little doubt that an SUV represents at present a vision of protection and power in the minds of the consumer who makes the purchase. What is less obvious to them and to a certain extent is being denied to them, are the full facts regarding the cost of that power.

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Types of Meat Consumed in the Middle Ages

Types of Meat Consumed in the Middle Ages The average medieval cook or housewife had access to a variety of meat from both wild and domesticated animals. Cooks in the households of the nobility had a fairly impressive selection available to them. Here are some, but by no means all, of the meat medieval people would consume. Beef and Veal By far the most common meat, beef was regarded as coarse and was never considered exclusive enough for the nobility; but it was very popular among the lower classes. Though more tender, veal never surpassed beef in popularity. Many peasant households had cows, usually only one or two, that would be slaughtered for meat once their days of giving milk had passed. This would usually take place in the fall so that the creature would not have to be fed through the winter, and whatever was not consumed at a feast would be preserved for use throughout the months ahead. Most of the animal was used for food, and those parts that werent eaten had other purposes; the hide was made into leather, the horns (if any) might be used for drinking vessels, and the bones were occasionally used to make sewing implements, fasteners, parts of tools, weapons, or musical instruments, and a variety of other useful items. In larger towns and cities, a substantial portion of the population had no kitchens of their own, and so it was necessary for them to purchase their meals ready-made from street vendors: a kind of medieval fast food. Beef would be used in the meat pies and other food items these vendors cooked if their customers were numerous enough to consume the product of a slaughtered cow in a matter of days. Goat and Kid Goats had been domesticated for thousands of years, but they were not particularly popular in most parts of medieval Europe. The meat of both adult goats and kids was consumed, however, and the females gave milk that was used for cheese. Mutton and Lamb Meat from a sheep that is at least a year old is known as mutton, which was very popular in the Middle Ages. In fact, mutton was sometimes the most expensive fresh meat available. It was preferable for a sheep to be from three to five years old before being slaughtered for its meat, and mutton that came from a castrated male sheep (a wether) was considered the finest quality. Adult sheep were most often slaughtered in the fall; the lamb was usually served in the spring. Roast leg of mutton was among the most popular foods for nobility and peasant alike. Like cows and pigs, sheep might be kept by peasant families, who could make use of the animals fleece regularly for homespun wool (or trade or sell it). Ewes gave milk that was frequently used for cheese. As with goat cheese, cheese made from sheeps milk could be eaten fresh or stored for quite some time. Pork, Ham, Bacon, and Suckling Pig Since ancient times, the meat of the pig had been very popular with everyone except Jews and Muslims, who regard the animal as unclean. In medieval Europe, pigs were everywhere. As omnivores, they could find food in the forest and city streets as well as on the farm. Where peasants could usually only afford to raise one or two cows, pigs were more numerous. Ham and bacon lasted a long time and went a long way in the humblest peasant household. As common and inexpensive as keeping pigs was, pork was favored by the most elite members of society, as well as by city vendors in pies and other ready-made foods. Like cows, nearly every part of the pig was used for food, right down to its hooves, which were used to make jellies. Its intestines were popular casings for sausages, and its head was sometimes served on a platter at festive occasions. Rabbit and Hare Rabbits have been domesticated for millennia, and they could be found in Italy and neighboring parts of Europe during Roman times. Domesticated rabbits were introduced to Britain as a food source after the Norman Conquest. Adult rabbits more than a year old are known as coneys and show up fairly frequently in surviving cookbooks, even though they were a rather expensive and unusual food item. Hare has never been domesticated, but it was hunted and eaten in medieval Europe. Its meat is darker and richer than that of rabbits, and it was frequently served in a heavily-peppered dish with a sauce made from its blood. Venison There were three types of deer common in medieval Europe: roe, fallow, and red. All three were a popular  quarry for aristocrats on the hunt, and the meat of all three was enjoyed by the nobility and their guests on many an occasion. The male deer (stag or hart) was considered superior for meat. Venison was a popular item at banquets, and in order to be sure of having the meat when it was wanted, deer were sometimes kept in enclosed tracts of land (deer parks). Since the hunting of deer (and other animals) in the forests was usually reserved for the nobility, it was highly unusual for the merchant, working, and peasant classes to partake of venison. Travelers and laborers who had reason to stay at or live in a castle or manor house might enjoy it as part of the bounty the lord and lady shared with their guests at mealtime. Sometimes cookshops were able to procure venison for their customers, but the product was much too expensive for all but the wealthiest merchants and nobility to purchase. Usually, the only way a peasant could taste venison was to poach it. Wild Boar The consumption of boar goes back thousands of years.   A wild  boar was highly prized in the Classical world, and in the Middle  Ages, it was a favored quarry of the hunt. Virtually all parts of the boar were eaten, including its liver, stomach and even its blood, and it was considered so tasty that it was the aim of some recipes to make the meat and innards of other animals taste like that of  boar. A boars head was often the crowning meal of a Christmas feast. A Note on Horse Meat The meat of horses has been consumed ever since the animal was first domesticated five thousand years ago, but in medieval Europe,  horse  was only eaten under the  direst  circumstances of famine or siege. Horse meat is prohibited in the diets of Jews, Muslims, and most Hindus, and is the only food ever to be forbidden by  Canon Law, which led to its being banned in most of Europe. Only in the 19th century was the restriction against horse meat lifted in any European countries. Horse meat does not appear in any surviving medieval cookbooks.   Types of FowlTypes of Fish Sources and Suggested Reading by Melitta Weiss Adamson edited by Martha Carlin and Joel T. Rosenthal edited  by C.M. Woolgar, D.  Serjeantson  and T. Waldron edited by E.E. Rich and C.H. Wilson by Melitta Weiss Adamson

Sunday, March 1, 2020

Intervention Strategies for Students at Risk

Intervention Strategies for Students at Risk Teens who are considered to be at-risk have a plethora of issues that need to be addressed, and learning in school is only one of them. By working  with these teens by using effective intervention strategies for studying and learning, its possible to help guide them on the right educational course. Directions or Instructions Make sure directions and/or instructions are given in limited numbers. Give directions/instructions verbally and in simple written format. Ask students to repeat the instructions or directions to ensure understanding occurs. Check back with the student to ensure he/she hasnt forgotten. It is a rare event for students at risk to be able to remember more than 3 things at once. Chunk your information, when 2 things are done, move to the next two. Peer Support Sometimes, all you have to do is assign a peer to help keep a student at risk on task. Peers can help build confidence in other students by assisting in peer  learning. Many teachers use the ask 3 before me approach. This is fine, however, a student at risk may have to have a specific student or two to ask. Set this up for the student so he/she knows who to ask for clarification before going to you. Assignments The student at risk will need many assignments modified or reduced. Always ask yourself, How can I modify this assignment to ensure the students at risk are able to complete it?  Sometimes youll simplify the task, reduce the length of the assignment or allow for a different mode of delivery. For instance, many students may hand something in, the at-risk student may make jot notes and give you the information verbally, or it just may be that you will need to assign an alternate assignment. Increase One to One Time Students at risk will require more of your time. When other students are working, always touch base with your students at risk and find out if theyre on track or needing some additional support. A few minutes here and there will go a long way to intervene as the need presents itself. Contracts It helps to have a working contract between you and your students at risk. This helps prioritize the tasks that need to be done and ensure completion happens. Each day, write down what needs to be completed, as the tasks are done, provide a checkmark or happy face. The goal of using contracts is to eventually have the student come to you for completion sign-offs. You may wish to have reward systems in place also.​ Hands-On As much as possible, think in concrete terms and provide hands-on tasks. This means a child doing math may require a calculator or counters. The child may need to tape record comprehension activities instead of writing them. A child may have to listen to a story being read instead of reading it him/herself. Always ask yourself if the child should have an alternate mode or additional learning materials to address the learning activity. Tests/Assessments Tests can be done orally if need be. Have an assistant help with testing situations. Break tests down in smaller increments by having a portion of the test in the morning, another portion after lunch and the final part the next day. Keep in mind, a student at risk often has a shortened attention span. Seating Where are your students at risk? Hopefully, they are near a helping peer or with quick access to the teacher. Those with hearing or sight issues need to be close to the instruction which often means near the front. Parental Involvement Planned intervention means involving parents. Do you have an agenda in place that goes home each night? Are parents also signing the agenda or contracts you have set up? How are you involving parental support at home for homework or additional follow up? A Strategy Summary Planned interventions are far superior to remediation approaches. Always plan to address students at risk in your learning tasks, instructions, and directions. Try to anticipate where the needs will be and then address them. Intervene as much as possible to support students at risk. If your intervention strategies are working, continue to use them. If theyre not working, plan for new interventions that will help students succeed. Always have a plan in place for those students who are at risk. What will you do for the students that arent learning? Students at risk are really students of promise be their hero.

Friday, February 14, 2020

Multi Protocol Label Switching Simulation Lab Report

Multi Protocol Label Switching Simulation - Lab Report Example Modem converts analog signal to digital signals & digital signal to analog signal. Today the internet seems to be an indispensable communication instrument, and everybody who is using the internet wants good services from internet service providers. Good service means, good downloading speed (means time related to opening, closing and downloading a file on the internet), good connectivity (Internet connection can be done easily on request), & transfer of data or file without interruption. Transfer of data or file without disturbance is a very critical factor on the internet, there are lots of internet connections providers, a lot of websites, a lot of data transfer, a lot of web server and lots of computer are accessing internet at the same time. Due to these usages, there is congestion on the internet, which results in delay in data transfer and also there is no surety that the data will be transferred completely. Today each and every organization wants to fulfill all the customers' needs. And the main agenda of most of the organization is Customer Satisfaction. Customer satisfaction is the key of success for any organization. Customer satisfaction can be achieved by providing good Quality of Service (QoS). Parameters for Quality of Service may vary from one organization to another. ... The performance of networking has complete dependence on the above four parameters. So if an organization wants to achieve customer satisfaction, they should have control on these parameters. For controlling these parameters, organizations use packet switching technology and Traffic Engineering. This technology depends on internet protocol addressing. Internet protocol addressing provides a unique number to a particular location. This unique numbers helps to find the location for transfer and minimize congestion. The internet protocol address is a twelve digit number. The Internet Engineering task force developed a technique known as Multi Protocol Label Switching (MPLS), to avoid congestion in networking, avoid delay in data transmission and keeping control on bandwidth. Multi Protocol Label Switching is based on internet protocol addressing. It involves packet data transfer. As the packet enters into Multi Protocol label switching, it receives a label. Depending upon the label Multi Protocol Label Switching defines the most suitable routing or path for data transfer. While defining the path Multi Protocol Label Switching analyze the load on the network & the type of traffic. Based on the analysis Multi Protocol Label Switching divides the traffic in a manner to minimize the network congestion. It also finds the shortest path for data transmission, which transmits the data from one location to other in the minimum time. Validation of MPLS Simulation: As we have come to know MPLS simulation is used to increase the efficiency of the network through minimizing congestion, now we have to validate that really this MPLS simulation is an effective tool for Internet service provider. There are various ways of proving or validating the MPLS